The Six Learnings

The Six Learnings Curriculum Framework and Disciplinary Intuitions as a Theory of Learning

Nurturing Socially Responsible Behaviour With the SORBET Project – a COVID-19 Response (5:13)

Since March 2020, Kenneth and his team have been collaborating with a team of Mathematics teachers to develop a response to COVID-19.

They would like to give young learners a more embodied understanding (with a view to the nurturing of values) of the importance of safe- / social-distancing.

They were prompted to work on the SORBET Project because while modelling of the diffusion of viruses through populations has been done, such resources tend to be in the form of animations of graphs, and this may come across as too abstract for young learners to grasp the gravity of.

Their acronym SORBET stands for Socially Responsible Behaviour through Embodied Thinking.

Kenneth and his team therefore worked with some Mathematics teachers - to ground the intervention in the curricular context of probabilities - to design a simple, open-source, immersive environment (not needing VR goggles), in which learners interact with each other - through their avatars. Subsequent to this stage of interaction in the environment, teachers facilitate group discussions (online / remote-learning, or face-to-face) on the degree to which a ‘virus’ has diffused amongst themselves. The discussion of the aggressiveness of the diffusion is thus grounded in their prior experiences of interaction. Kenneth and his team have specifically designed the environment to be able to be enacted in low network infrastructure environments. The point of the SORBET Project is helping learners develop a greater appreciation of the need to practise social distancing. Jim Gee’s theory of Projective Identity speaks towards how the virtual augments of the SORBET Project inform our 'Real Life' selves, decisions, and behaviours.

The SORBET Project has been chosen to be featured at the Project Showcase of the 6th international conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network, 21 - 25 June 2020.

What is The Six Learnings? (4:02)

Students are more engaged, learning is more authentic and understandings are more enduring because performance tasks are designed with greater recognition of context and connectedness.

How will teachers benefit as a curriculum designer?

The Six Learnings framework and its undergirding theory of Disciplinary Intuitions together form a frame to facilitate teachers’ reflective questions on one’s approach to curriculum design and student learning.

Instead of simply surfacing students’ misconceptions, after going through this programme, teachers will be able to uncover where the roots of the misconceptions lie, namely the intuitions that the students bring with them. In this way, students’ thinking is made more visible to teachers, and teachers are more able to address the students’ misunderstandings.

The Six Learnings curricular framework informs the design of learning environments for students to apply their learning. It can support many subject and co-curricular activities.

The Six Learnings complements the theory of Disciplinary Intuitions. From the premise that tacit intuitions are developed through personal experiences and prior knowledge, the framework supports the design of collaborative and immersive learning environments, which helps surface learners’ pre-conceptions or misunderstandings so that they can be dialogued on.

This framework describes six possible areas of curriculum design.



Learning by exploring

This is learning that results from exploration of installations, communities, and landscapes within the immersive world itself. Depending on the nature of the learning task, such explorations could be scaffolded to varying degrees. For instance, a group of learners in a geography class might collect data on wind patterns at different locations in a virtual environment, so that they could subsequently test their hypotheses on various aspects of meteorology and climatology.



Learning by collaborating

This refers to learning that results from students working in teams, either on problem-solving tasks or other forms of structured inquiry to enhance their metacognitive habits and understanding of the social dynamics of group work.



Learning by being

This is learning that results from exploration of self and identity. Such learning involves the assumptions of identities and dispositions through enculturation. A common learning design would be role-playing in an immersive environment. For example, by engaging in activities within true-to-scale and contextually accurate learning environments designed by the teacher, students’ responses to issues facing community stakeholders in the real world are more thoughtful and deliberate, and a greater sense of empathy is achieved.



Learning by building

This refers to learning that results from tasks that require learners to build objects and /or script them. Such activities could potentially involve the demonstration of mathematical understandings of trigonometry and physics, the learners’ sense of aesthetics, as well as their grasp of the logical algorithmic flows inherent in a scripting language.



Learning by championing

Referring to learning that results from raising awareness of the social needs of various communities, this learning could easily be a focus in the humanities. For example, learners might be tasked to design an installation/exhibit in an immersive learning environment that sought to raise awareness and educate the general public about particular causes that might be meaningful to them.



Learning by expressing

This refers to students’ articulating their learnings from their interactions within the immersive environment using various media. For example, it could encompass the authoring and editing of blogs and podcasts, storyboarding, the technical aspects of audio- and video-editing, as well as the principles of literary critique and creative writing.

Students are given opportunities to,


  • surface their emerging conceptual understanding; which make visible their tacit intuition,

  • dialogue around the emerged conceptual understanding, and

  • appropriate their conceptual disciplinary knowledge. For instance, to think like a scientist or a historian.

  • The intervention project significantly sustained the intrinsic motivation of students during lessons.

  • In addition, student learning gains from a range of assessment types were found. These gains in assessment scores are directly attributable to the intervention, as well as indirectly through constructs such as motivation, self-directedness and self-efficacy.

  • Students were also observed to demonstrate significant improvement in their higher-order thinking skills.

  • Teachers should first consider their learning goals and how they wish to engage their students. The lesson resources on this site provide a glimpse of the possible ways of engaging students to learn through the six potential areas.

  • Interested educators can approach the Principal Investigator for more classroom resources and any queries regarding the framework and implementation.

Implementation Tips
  • It is recommended to target just one or two areas of The Six Learnings framework on the basis of how well they align with the school vision and the intended learning objectives.

  • Many of these immersive environments are open-source, which reduces the financial cost for teachers and schools.

Classroom resources

A sample lesson exercise on Map Reading for Sec 1 Geography class.

Research projects

The following projects are associated with The Six Learnings research:


Question-Icon
Research team

To learn more about The Six Learnings, please contact the Principal Investigator Dr Kenneth Lim at kenneth.lim@nie.edu.sg.



    Principal Investigator
  • Dr Kenneth Lim, Office of Research Education (OER), NIE

    Research Assistants
  • Mr Yuen Ming De, OER, NIE

  • Mr Ahmed Hazyl Hilmy, OER, NIE

  • Mr Derek Chua,
  • Mr Richard Lee.
Research led by
Author
Principal Investigator
Dr Kenneth Lim, NIE

To learn more about The Six Learnings, email: kenneth.lim@nie.edu.sg

This research on The Six Learnings was funded by Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE) under the Education Research Funding Programme (OER 05/09 LYT), Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF) under the eduLab Programme (NRF2011-EDU001-EL004, NRF2013-EDU001-IHL02 & NRF2014-EDU001-IHL05) and administered by National Institute of Education (NIE), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Singapore MOE, Singapore NRF and NIE.

This knowledge resource was written by Monica Ong, Lyndia Teow and Elizabeth Koh.

What teachers & students say

“Through this project, students have grown in 21st Century Competencies and increased confidence levels. They have also engaged in contextual learning.”

- HOD Aesthetics


"This technology is very relevant… For instance, geography students in our school have to conduct a Geography investigation project every year which required field sketches in our research, reports and presentations. Instead of using [a] pencil to draw, we could use this technology to help present our ideas better."

- Student


“The teachers had great support from NIE. In this whole exercise, Dr Kenneth Lim and his team has always been coming back, talking to the teachers during, before and after lessons. Often, there’s a lot of discussions and reflective practices happening, resulting in deep learning.”

- Principal
Participants

Students from primary to tertiary levels

110 teachers

20 secondary schools

Topics

21st Century Competencies, Self-Directed Learning

The Six Learnings

The Six Learnings Curriculum Framework and Disciplinary Intuitions as a Theory of Learning

Question-Icon
How can Disciplinary Intuitions and
The Six Learnings framework help your students?
  • Students are more engaged, learning is more authentic and understandings are more enduring because performance tasks are designed with greater recognition of context and connectedness.
  • How will teachers benefit as a curriculum designer?
    The Six Learnings framework and its undergirding theory of Disciplinary Intuitions together form a frame to facilitate teachers’ reflective questions on one’s approach to curriculum design and student learning.
  • Instead of simply surfacing students’ misconceptions, after going through this programme, teachers will be able to uncover where the roots of the misconceptions lie, namely the intuitions that the students bring with them. In this way, students’ thinking is made more visible to teachers, and teachers are more able to address the students’ misunderstandings.
Question-Icon
What is The Six Learnings curriculum framework?

The Six Learnings curricular framework informs the design of learning environments for students to apply their learning. It can support many subject and co-curricular activities.

The Six Learnings complements the theory of Disciplinary Intuitions. From the premise that tacit intuitions are developed through personal experiences and prior knowledge, the framework supports the design of collaborative and immersive learning environments, which helps surface learners’ pre-conceptions or misunderstandings so that they can be dialogued on.

This framework describes six possible areas of curriculum design.



Learning by exploring

This is learning that results from exploration of installations, communities, and landscapes within the immersive world itself. Depending on the nature of the learning task, such explorations could be scaffolded to varying degrees. For instance, a group of learners in a geography class might collect data on wind patterns at different locations in a virtual environment, so that they could subsequently test their hypotheses on various aspects of meteorology and climatology.



Learning by collaborating

This refers to learning that results from students working in teams, either on problem-solving tasks or other forms of structured inquiry to enhance their metacognitive habits and understanding of the social dynamics of group work.



Learning by being

This is learning that results from exploration of self and identity. Such learning involves the assumptions of identities and dispositions through enculturation. A common learning design would be role-playing in an immersive environment. For example, by engaging in activities within true-to-scale and contextually accurate learning environments designed by the teacher, students’ responses to issues facing community stakeholders in the real world are more thoughtful and deliberate, and a greater sense of empathy is achieved.



Learning by building

This refers to learning that results from tasks that require learners to build objects and /or script them. Such activities could potentially involve the demonstration of mathematical understandings of trigonometry and physics, the learners’ sense of aesthetics, as well as their grasp of the logical algorithmic flows inherent in a scripting language.



Learning by championing

Referring to learning that results from raising awareness of the social needs of various communities, this learning could easily be a focus in the humanities. For example, learners might be tasked to design an installation/exhibit in an immersive learning environment that sought to raise awareness and educate the general public about particular causes that might be meaningful to them.



Learning by expressing

This refers to students’ articulating their learnings from their interactions within the immersive environment using various media. For example, it could encompass the authoring and editing of blogs and podcasts, storyboarding, the technical aspects of audio- and video-editing, as well as the principles of literary critique and creative writing.

Question-Icon
How does The Six Learnings work?

Students are given opportunities to,


  • surface their emerging conceptual understanding; which make visible their tacit intuition,
  • dialogue around the emerged conceptual understanding, and
  • appropriate their conceptual disciplinary knowledge. For instance, to think like a scientist or a historian.
Question-Icon
How did students respond?
  • The intervention project significantly sustained the intrinsic motivation of students during lessons.
  • In addition, student learning gains from a range of assessment types were found. These gains in assessment scores are directly attributable to the intervention, as well as indirectly through constructs such as motivation, self-directedness and self-efficacy.
  • Students were also observed to demonstrate significant improvement in their higher-order thinking skills.
Question-Icon
How can teachers get started?
  • Teachers should first consider their learning goals and how they wish to engage their students. The lesson resources on this site provide a glimpse of the possible ways of engaging students to learn through the six potential areas.
  • Interested educators can approach the Principal Investigator for more classroom resources and any queries regarding the framework and implementation.
Implementation Tips
  • It is recommended to target just one or two areas of The Six Learnings framework on the basis of how well they align with the school vision and the intended learning objectives.
  • Many of these immersive environments are open-source, which reduces the financial cost for teachers and schools.
Question-Icon
Related links
Research projects

The following projects are associated with The Six Learnings research:


Question-Icon
Research team

To learn more about The Six Learnings, please contact the Principal Investigator Dr Kenneth Lim at kenneth.lim@nie.edu.sg.



    Principal Investigator
  • Dr Kenneth Lim, Office of Research Education (OER), NIE
    Research Assistants
  • Mr Yuen Ming De, OER, NIE
  • Mr Ahmed Hazyl Hilmy, OER, NIE
  • Mr Derek Chua
  • Mr Richard Lee

This research on The Six Learnings was funded by Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE) under the Education Research Funding Programme (OER 05/09 LYT), Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF) under the eduLab Programme (NRF2011-EDU001-EL004, NRF2013-EDU001-IHL02 & NRF2014-EDU001-IHL05) and administered by National Institute of Education (NIE), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Singapore MOE, Singapore NRF and NIE.

This knowledge resource was written by Monica Ong, Lyndia Teow and Elizabeth Koh.

Nurturing Socially Responsible Behaviour With the SORBET Project – a COVID-19 Response (5:13)

Since March 2020, Kenneth and his team have been collaborating with a team of Mathematics teachers to develop a response to COVID-19.

They would like to give young learners a more embodied understanding (with a view to the nurturing of values) of the importance of safe- / social-distancing.

They were prompted to work on the SORBET Project because while modelling of the diffusion of viruses through populations has been done, such resources tend to be in the form of animations of graphs, and this may come across as too abstract for young learners to grasp the gravity of.

Their acronym SORBET stands for Socially Responsible Behaviour through Embodied Thinking.

Kenneth and his team therefore worked with some Mathematics teachers - to ground the intervention in the curricular context of probabilities - to design a simple, open-source, immersive environment (not needing VR goggles), in which learners interact with each other - through their avatars. Subsequent to this stage of interaction in the environment, teachers facilitate group discussions (online / remote-learning, or face-to-face) on the degree to which a ‘virus’ has diffused amongst themselves. The discussion of the aggressiveness of the diffusion is thus grounded in their prior experiences of interaction. Kenneth and his team have specifically designed the environment to be able to be enacted in low network infrastructure environments. The point of the SORBET Project is helping learners develop a greater appreciation of the need to practise social distancing. Jim Gee’s theory of Projective Identity speaks towards how the virtual augments of the SORBET Project inform our 'Real Life' selves, decisions, and behaviours.

The SORBET Project has been chosen to be featured at the Project Showcase of the 6th international conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network, 21 - 25 June 2020.

What is The Six Learnings? (4:02)

Classroom resources

A sample lesson exercise on Map Reading for Sec 1 Geography class.

What teachers & students say

“Through this project, students have grown in 21st Century Competencies and increased confidence levels. They have also engaged in contextual learning.”

- HOD Aesthetics


"This technology is very relevant… For instance, geography students in our school have to conduct a Geography investigation project every year which required field sketches in our research, reports and presentations. Instead of using [a] pencil to draw, we could use this technology to help present our ideas better."

- Student


“The teachers had great support from NIE. In this whole exercise, Dr Kenneth Lim and his team has always been coming back, talking to the teachers during, before and after lessons. Often, there’s a lot of discussions and reflective practices happening, resulting in deep learning.”

- Principal
Participants

Students from primary to tertiary levels

110 teachers

20 secondary schools

Topics

21st Century Competencies, Self-Directed Learning